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(arthritis is a condition characterized by stiffness and inflammation, or swelling, of the joints. It’s not one type of disease, but it’s a general way of referring to joint pain or joint diseases.

While you may only experience mild discomfort at the beginning of the condition, symptoms can worsen over time. They may eventually cause work limitations and affect your day to day. While your risk for arthritis can increase with age, it’s not limited to older adults. Furthermore, there are different risk factors associated with different types of arthritis.
Understanding the causes and risk factors of arthritis can help you and your doctor take preventive measures. This can help keep your symptoms from worsening or delay the onset of the condition.

What causes arthritis?

While there are many different types of arthritis, the two major categories are osteoarthritis (oa) and rheumatoid arthritis (ra). Each of these arthritis types have different causes.


Wear and tear

Oa is most commonly the result of wear-and-tear to the joints. Use of the joints over time can contribute to the breakdown of protective cartilage in your joints. This causes bone to rub against bone. That feeling can be very painful and restrict movement.



Ra is when the body’s immune system attacks itself. Specifically the body attacks the membrane that surrounds the joint parts. This can result in inflamed or swollen joints, destruction of cartilage and bone, and ultimately pain. You may also experience other symptoms of inflammation, such as fever and loss of appetite.



Sometimes, traumatic injury or an infection in the joints can advance the progression of arthritis. For example, reactive arthritis is a type of arthritis that can follow some infections. This includes sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia, fungal infections, and food-borne illnesses.



When the body breaks down purines, a substance found in cells and foods, it forms uric acid. Some people have high levels of uric acid. When the body can’t get rid of it, the acid builds up and forms needle-like crystals in the joints. This causes extreme and sudden joint point, or a gout attack. Gout comes and goes, but if left untreated it can become chronic.


Other causes

Other skin and organ conditions can also cause arthritis. These include:


Psoriasis, a skin disease caused by excessive skin cell turnover

Sjogren’s, a disorder that can cause decreased saliva and tears, and systemic disease

Inflammatory bowel disease, or conditions that include inflammation of the digestive tract such as crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis



What increases your risk for arthritis?

Sometimes arthritis can occur with no known cause. But there are also factors that can increase your risk for all types of arthritis.


Age: advanced age increases a person’s risk for arthritis types such as gout, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis.


Family history: you are more likely to have arthritis if your parent or sibling has an arthritis type.


Gender: women are more likely to have ra than men while men are more likely to have gout.


Obesity: excess weight can increase a person’s risk for oa because it puts more pressure on the joints.


History of previous injuries: those who have injured a joint from playing sports, from a car accident, or other occurrences are more likely to experience arthritis later.


Even if you don’t feel the symptoms, you should discuss your potential risks for arthritis with your doctor. They can help provide ways to prevent or delay arthritis.



What are the types of arthritis?

Just as the location of arthritis varies, not all people will have the same type of arthritis.



Oa is the most common type of arthritis. The greatest risk factor for this condition is age. Normal pain and stiffness associated with getting older doesn’t go away when you have this condition. Previous injuries in childhood and young adulthood can also cause osteoarthritis, even if you think you fully recovered.


Rheumatoid arthritis

Ra is the second most common type of arthritis. In people younger than 16 years old, it’s called juvenile inflammatory arthritis (previously it was known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis). This type of autoimmune disease causes the body to attacks tissues in the joints. You have a greater risk of getting this form of arthritis if you already have another type of autoimmune disorder, such as lupus, hashimoto’s thyroiditis, or multiple sclerosis. Pain and visible swelling, especially in the hands, characterize this condition.



Gout is the third most common type of arthritis. When uric acid builds up, it crystalizes around the joints. This crystallization triggers inflammation, making it difficult and painful for bones to move. The arthritis foundation estimates that four percent of american adults develop gout, primarily in their middle ages. Obesity-related conditions can also increase your risk for high uric acid and gout. Signs of gout commonly start in the toes, but can occur in other joints in the body.


Can you prevent arthritis?

There is no single preventative measure for arthritis, especially considering all of the different forms that exist. But you can take steps to preserve joint function and mobility. These steps will also improve your overall quality of life.


Learning more about the disease can also help with early treatment. For example, if you know you have an autoimmune disorder, you can be mindful of early symptoms. The earlier you catch the disease and start treatment the better you may be able to delay the progression of the disease.


Some general recommendations as to how you can prevent arthritis include:


Eating a mediterranean-style diet. A diet of fish, nuts, seeds, olive oil, beans, and whole grains may help with inflammation. Decreasing your intake of sugar, wheat, and gluten may also help.

Eating a diet low in sugars. Sugars can contribute to inflammation and gout pain.

Maintaining a healthy weight. This reduces the demands on your joints.

Exercising regularly. Physical activity can help reduce pain, improve mood, and increase joint mobility and function.

Refraining from smoking. The habit can worsen autoimmune disorders, and is a major risk-factor for rheumatoid arthritis

Seeing your doctor for yearly check-ups. Remember to report any symptoms that may be related to arthritis.

Wearing proper protective equipment. When playing sports or doing work, protective equipment can help prevent injuries.

When should you see a doctor?

Advanced arthritis can make mobility difficult, including the ability to perform everyday activities. Ideally, you would see your physician before your condition is in the advanced stages. That’s why it’s important to know about this condition, especially if you’re at risk for it.


Some general recommendations for when to see your physician include:


Difficulty moving a particular joint

Joint swelling



Warmth at the affected joint

Your doctor will listen to your symptoms and evaluate your medical and family history. A doctor may order further testing, such as blood, urine, joint fluid tests, or imaging studies (x-rays or ultrasound). These tests can help determine what type of arthritis you have.


Your doctor may also use imaging tests to identify areas of injury or joint breakdown. Imaging tests include x-rays, ultrasound, or magnetic resonance imaging scans. This can also help rule out other conditions.




What are the treatments for arthritis?

Your doctor may prescribe medication, recommend surgery, and encourage you to do physical therapy and excercises to strengthen the muscles around the joint. If your osteoarthritis continues to advance, surgery may be recommended to repair or replace the joint. Joint replacement procedures are more common for large joints, such as the knees and hips.)

Replacement arthroplasty -comes as alink that delivers the below content :

(replacement arthroplasty is replacement of joint, limbs. Joint replacement surgery, is a procedure of orthopedic surgery in which an arthritic or dysfunctional joint surface is replaced with an orthopedic prosthesis. Joint replacement is considered as a treatment when severe joint pain or dysfunction is not alleviated by less-invasive therapies. It is a form of arthroplasty, and is often indicated from various joint diseases, including osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.



Types of replacements.


Shoulder replacement:

For shoulder replacement, there are a few major approaches to access the shoulder joint. The first is the deltopectoral approach, which saves the deltoid, but requires the supraspinatus to be cut.

the second is the transdeltoid approach, which provides a straight on approach at the glenoid. However, during this approach the deltoid is put at risk for potential damage.both techniques are used, depending on the surgeon’s preferences.



hip replacement

Hip replacement can be performed as a total replacement or a hemi (half) replacement. A total hip replacement consists of replacing both the acetabulum and the femoral head while hemiarthroplasty generally only replaces the femoral head. Hip replacement is currently the most common orthopaedic operation, though patient satisfaction short- and long-term varies widely



knee replacement

Knee replacement involves exposure of the front of the knee, with detachment of part of the quadriceps muscle (vastus medialis) from the patella. The patella is displaced to one side of the joint, allowing exposure of the distal end of the femur and the proximal end of the tibia. The ends of these bones are then accurately cut to shape using cutting guides oriented to the long axis of the bones. The cartilages and the anterior cruciate ligament are removed; the posterior cruciate ligament may also be removed but the tibial and fibular collateral ligaments are preserved. Metal components are then impacted onto the bone or fixed using polymethylmethacrylate (pmma) cement. Alternative techniques exist that affix the implant without cement. These cement-less techniques may involve osseointegration, including porous metal prostheses.


The operation typically involves substantial postoperative pain, and includes vigorous physical rehabilitation. The recovery period may be 6 weeks or longer and may involve the use of mobility aids (e.g. walking frames, canes, crutches) to enable the person’s return to preoperative mobility.[7]



Ankle replacement:

Ankle replacement has become a treatment of choice for people requiring arthroplasty, replacing the conventional use of arthrodesis, i.e. fusion of the bones. The restoration of range of motion is the key feature in favor of ankle replacement with respect to arthrodesis. However, clinical evidence of the superiority of the former has only been demonstrated for particular isolated implant design.



Finger joint replacement.

Finger joint replacement is a relatively quick procedure of about 30 minutes, but requires several months of subsequent therapy. Post-operative therapy may consist of wearing a hand splint or performing exercises to improve function and pain.



Prosthesis replacements

The prosthesis may need to be replaced due to complications such as infection or prosthetic fracture. Replacement may be done in one single surgical session. Alternatively, an initial surgery may be performed to remove previous prosthetic material, and the new prosthesis is then inserted in a separate surgery at a later time. In such cases, especially when complicated by infection, a spacer may be used, which is a sturdy mass to provide some basic joint stability and mobility until a more permanent prosthesis is inserted. It can contain antibiotics to help treating any infection.



Risks and complications


The stress of the operation may result in medical problems of varying incidence and severity if adequate care is not taken .


Heart attack


Venous thromboembolism


Increased confusion

Urinary tract infection (uti)

Intra-operative risks

Mal-positioning of the components



Loss of range of motion;

Fracture of the adjacent bone;

Nerve damage;

Damage to blood vessels.

Immediate risks

Infection, either superficial or deep


Medium-term risk


Persistent pain;

Loss of range of motion;


Indolent infection.


Long-term risks


Loosening of the components: the bond between the bone and the components or the cement may break down or fatigue. As a result, the component moves inside the bone, causing pain. Fragments of wear debris may cause an inflammatory reaction with bone absorption which can cause loosening. This phenomenon is known as osteolysis.

Polyethylene synovitis – wear of the weight-bearing surfaces: polyethylene is thought to wear in weight-bearing joints such as the hip at a rate of 0.3mm per year. This may be a problem in itself since the bearing surfaces are often less than 10 mm thick and may deform as they get thinner. The wear may also cause problems, as inflammation can be caused by increased quantities of polyethylene wear particles in the synovial fluid.

Early mobilisation of the person is thought to be the key to reducing the chances of complications, such as venous thromboembolism and pneumonia. Modern practice is to mobilize people as soon as possible and ambulate with walking aids when tolerated. Depending on the joint involved and the pre-op status of the person, the time of hospitalization varies from 1 day to 2 weeks, with the average being 4–7 days in most regions.

Physiotherapy is used extensively to help people recover function after joint replacement surgery. A graded exercise programme is needed initially, as the person’s muscles take time to heal after the surgery; exercises for range of motion of the joints and ambulation should not be strenuous. Later when the muscles have healed, the aim of exercise expands to include strengthening and recovery of function. Also essure that the person has adequate care and support for soecialised care professionals.)


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